Drought Case Study
Drought - Wikipedia
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
Drought Case Study
Climatologically, the sahel is characterized by frequent droughts - low, poorly distributed and highly variable monthly and seasonal unpredictable rainfall. Since the essence of the drylands environment is climate variability, the successful use of drylands requires a balance of capability, utilization, and resilience. These are reflected in an increased vapour pressure deficit with implications for water use efficiency, transpiration, and evaporation.
However, there is tremendous pressure from grazing, especially by goats. The years from 1960 to 1963 were among the wettest of the period, while the seventies and eighties experienced, for the most part, lower rainfall. Nevertheless, it is possible to make some observations about rainfall behavior during this century.
Rainfall variability both in time and space, coupled with the inherent ecological fragility of the drylands, weakens the resilience of the ecosystem and its ability to return to its original condition. According to21 land degradation, due to natural causes, is assumed to occur at a rate, which is almost equal to the rate of natural rehabilitation. From 1920 (see figure 8) the climate became noticeably wetter, with more reliable rainfall from year to year and several sequences of years when rainfall exceeded the recent 30-year on averages.
The trees also enhance infiltration of water into the soil. Measures of soil fertility have shown increased levels of nitrogen, phosphorous and organic matter under acacia trees. K, arid and semi-arid lands characteristics and importance arid and semi-arid or sub-humid zones are characterized by low erratic rainfall , 1985.
Farming is taken beyond the limits of sustainable rain-fed agriculture. In 1973 almost all the african countries suffered, north and south alike. The challenge now is to look for more sustainable ways of farming.
Rainfall variability in west africa during the years 1950-90. In many areas desertification takes dramatic forms, such as, shifting sand dunes that move on to villages and fields, the formation of deep gullies, and crusts that seal the soils surface and markedly increase runoff. A, organic matter accumulation, in rattan lal (ed. Box 4, fi 00014 university of helsinki, finland. Institutional aspects of agroforestry research and development.
California to 'whipsaw' between drought, floods: study
The Golden State has already experienced a rapid rise in such "whiplash" events—careering from a record multi-year drought between 2012 and 2016, to heavy flooding in the winter of 2016-17.
Drought Case Study
Sri Lanka - Initial Rapid Assessment on Drought 2016, January ...
Sri Lanka has been experiencing ongoing drought since the beginning of 2016. In recent months, approximately 1 million people have been affected across the country by the drought. Paddy cultivation in the Maha 2016 season (the main harvest season) was seriously affected by the dry spell, with an ...
Drought Case Study
M surface water availability and the management of herbivore distributions in an african savanna ecosystem journal of arid environments 63 406-424, 2005. Land degradation occurs when this balance is lost.
The sahel has remained drier than normal well after 1995. Source noaa global historical climatology network date52 figure 9 shows that the general rainfall trend seen in the sahel was mirrored in the sudan the wet 1950s and 1960s were followed by a prolonged dry spell in the sahel starting in the late 1960s lasting until the early 1990s.
Against this backdrop, Emergence.
Poverty is the main reason for the steady decline in rural incomes resulting in complex demographic, economic, and social changes. Rainfall variability is an important factor in dryland climates47.
The downward trend from 1960 to 1970 affected the whole continent, The years from 1960 to 1963 were among the wettest of the period, while the seventies and eighties experienced, for the most part.
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Approaches to halt and reverse land degradation in kenya agroforestry development and environmental sustainability. In the sudan rangelands occupy approximately 50 of the countrys area. At present, the kakuma camp is home to 70,958 refugees from 9 different countries with 72 coming from sudan and 22 from somalia28 according to29,30 the degradation of vegetation on overstocked pastures takes place both quantitatively and qualitatively, useful species disappear and are replaced by unpalatable species, for example, the poisonous scrub (gubeish) occupy vast areas and replace former, palatable pasture grasses, such as the old stable dune belt (qoz) is the main rain-fed cultivation zone in darfur and kordofan. Desertification has been defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities11. It is, therefore, significant, that highly populated areas and livestock watering points were the places where signs of desertification in the sudano-sahelian first became apparent25.
The year 1973 was interesting in that it constituted the first poor year after a run of good years. One of the greatest threats is desertification, which robs the land of its soil, biodiversity, and productivity. Fao, land, food and people, rome fao. Civil strife in southern sudan and somalia for example, has led to the displacement of large numbers of people to kenya. The years 1973, 1984, and 1992 were bad, while 1963, and, to a lesser extent 1989 were remarkable years in that almost the whole continent experienced above average conditions.
To qualify as agroforestry, a given land-use system or practice must permit economic or ecological interactions between the woody and non-woody components this definition provides a classification in agrosilvicultural (trees with crops) and silvopastoral (trees with pastures) practices, sequential and simultaneous systems in zonal and mixed arrangement of trees and crops. Global desertication do humans cause deserts?, vol. Desertification and implementation of the un plan of action to combat desertification unep, nairobi, 88p. Sudan and elsewhere in africa 15-13 degrees of latitude,mccorquodale(sudan),khartoum. Since the essence of the drylands environment is climate variability, the successful use of drylands requires a balance of capability, utilization, and resilience. Water can be lost through evapotranspiration, evaporation, infiltration, run-off, pollution, or overuse. There are several reports, which argue that, growth rates in dryland populations among paternalists at least are not high57. This decline in rainfall results in the familiar pattern of vegetation degradation, soil erosion, and decreased crop yields and livestock productivity coupled with an increase in migrations of people. As8 classifies about 75 of the worlds drylands as degraded. Rainfall variability both in time and space, coupled with the inherent ecological fragility of the drylands, weakens the resilience of the ecosystem and its ability to return to its original condition.Get the latest science news and technology news, read tech reviews and more at ABC News.
Topic: Drought - Water Education FoundationDrought— an extended period of limited or no precipitation— is a fact of life in California and the West, with water resources following boom-and-bust patterns.
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Against this backdrop, this study was conducted to explore the impacts of desertification, degradation and drought on both the natural resources and mans livelihood in the sudan. Data for this study was derived from both primary data (observation) and secondary data or a review of relevant literature, and a compilation of other available information on drought trends as reflected in rainfall trends in the study area, and on trends concerning the productivity of natural resources in the wider context of land degradation and desertification. In 27 out of the 39 years between 19 general precipitation totals were above the long period normal figures. In semi-arid areas agricultural harvests are likely to be irregular, although grazing is satisfactory3,4 Buy now Drought Case Study
Recent trends and anomalies in mean seasonal and annual temperatures over sudan. In many areas desertification takes dramatic forms, such as, shifting sand dunes that move on to villages and fields, the formation of deep gullies, and crusts that seal the soils surface and markedly increase runoff. It is impossible to separate climate-induced factors, which caused environmental changes from land degradation induced by humann activity. Information was also compiled from existing records on rainfall, forest land cover, forest stocking, rangelands and carrying capacity and on agricultural productivity and population trends. Baraka delta, in soil conservation committees report, khartoum, , 174 pp, 1944 Drought Case Study Buy now
Box 28, fi- 00014 university of helsinki, finland correspondence to edinam k. An introduction to agroforestry, kluwer academic publishers, 1993. Despite the fact that rainfall has decreased, the vegetation cover is in the process of recovering. It also showed that in the east kordofan district of western sudan, with an area of about 29,000 square km, there were 150 boreholes, many of which supplied overlapping grazing areas, which have had great impact on the deterioration and degradation of the ecosystem. The sudano-sahelian zone experienced a downward trend in rainfall until 1988, which was followed by a series of about-average years.
Glover, olavi luukkanen, causes and impacts of land degradation and desertification case study of the sudan, the term sahel (an arabic word for shore) is used to refer to the semi-arid zone to the south of sahara desert Buy Drought Case Study at a discount
The study was based on a fact finding tour in the sudan and data collection on drought trends as reflected in rainfall trends in the study area, and on trends concerning the productivity of natural resources. Thomas (eds) world atlas of desertification 2nd edition, london edward arnold. Ali, a and lebel, t, the sahelian standardized rainfall index revisited. The year 1973 was interesting in that it constituted the first poor year after a run of good years. Central and western sahel rainfall regime (19902007).
Emergence, establishment, and yield of pearl millet. Nutrient evolution in soil and cereal yield under different fertilizertion type in dryland. Agroforestry systems in the tropics, forestry sciences, 3113-18 Buy Online Drought Case Study
Desertification, a phenomenon referring to land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions as a result of climatic variations and human activities, is considered as one of the most severe environmental and socio-economic problems of recent times. The term land degradation involves both soil and vegetation degradation. Source42 rainfall variability on a time scale from years to days is as much a characteristic of climate as the total amount of rainfall recorded. The implications of these trends on the natural resource base include environmental degradation, food insecurity and aggravation of income inequalities among the sudanese producers. Ali, a and lebel, t, the sahelian standardized rainfall index revisited Buy Drought Case Study Online at a discount
Tropical dryland rehabilitation case study on participatory forest management in gedaref, sudan. The kenyan government has housed most of these refugees in two major refugee settlements, namely, in the kakuma and dadaab camps. The forests act 1989 of the sudan has already stressed the need to practice agroforestry and obliged large-scale mechanized farmers to leave or to plant a percentage not less than 10 of the total area of a rain fed project, and a percentage not less than 5 of the total area of an irrigated project, in the form of wind breaks or shelter belts for the purpose of protection and production68. Other climatic characteristics include strong winds, and low humidity. So current forms of land tenures or the lack of clear landowning policies constrained the implementation of sustainable management strategies for controlling or rehabilitating the degraded lands, because there is a tendency to be careless about communally-owned land Drought Case Study For Sale
The people of the sudan depend, economically, on agricultural crop production and animal husbandry and both practices have a direct impact on dryland degradation. However human-related factors account for accelerated forms of land degradation. Soil and tillage research , 25 301-315, 1993. Another definition of desertification is the spread of desert-like conditions of low biological productivity due to human impact under climatic variations12,13,14. It is, therefore, significant, that highly populated areas and livestock watering points were the places where signs of desertification in the sudano-sahelian first became apparent25.
For example, in the same part of sudan to which55, referred,56 could find no correlations between population density and degradation For Sale Drought Case Study
He reported that there was rapid deterioration of soil and vegetation were occurring in parts of the red sea hills which he considered as a warning that such problems might be developing elsewhere, particularly around town peripheries and settlement areas in the kordofan and darfur provinces of western sudan. International journal of natural and engineering sciences 1(3)41-48. For example, in the same part of sudan to which55, referred,56 could find no correlations between population density and degradation. Desertification has been described as self-propagating7 and it feeds on itself as expanding areas become useless for crops or livestock, whilst the pressure on the islands of remaining fertile land that remain increases Sale Drought Case Study
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